There is no discontunity free material. Crack initiation stage is often completed even before the commissioning of enclosing and structural assemblies. Thus, crack propagation resistance of the material and geometry of the flaw are major issues to be concerned and assessed.

Determination of fracture toughness properties of materials, as well as other mechanical properties of them, and fitness-for-purpose/service assessments for assemblies and failure analysis are among industrial metallurgy services by Ion.